Here is what I have learned about applying for graduate school fellowships.
National Science Foundation Fellowship – GRFP
NSF offer the GRFP – deadline Nov 15. You can only apply during your senior year undergrad, first year graduate school, or second year graduate school.
2011 Solicitation (I need to wait for them to publish the 2012 solicitation)
Chateaubriand fellowship – To spend 10 months doing STEM research in France
DOE SCGF – 3 years living stipend, research allowance, partial tuition coverage at a U.S. academic institution
NDSEG (DoD) Fellowship Program – Application available Sept 2012